Recent research has indicated a potential link between digestive problems, such as constipation and swallowing difficulties, and an increased risk of developing Parkinson’s disease.
While significant progress has been made in studying the connection between the digestive system and conditions like Alzheimer’s, strokes, and brain aneurysms, research regarding specific digestive diseases and their association with Parkinson’s has been relatively limited.
However, a recent study has shed light on this matter, suggesting that certain gastrointestinal disorders could act as early indicators of Parkinson’s disease. The study’s most significant discovery is the accumulation of strong observational evidence suggesting that clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities might be predictive of future Parkinson’s disease development.
This study examined medical data from three groups comprising a total of 24,624 individuals (including 19,046 with Alzheimer’s disease and 23,942 with cerebrovascular illness). The cohorts were matched based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, and duration since diagnosis. Researchers investigated how frequently gastrointestinal issues occurred in the six years leading up to each diagnosis.
The findings revealed that people with gastrointestinal problems had an elevated risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Specifically, more than twice as many individuals diagnosed with Parkinson’s had experienced gastrointestinal issues within the preceding five years, including constipation, swallowing difficulties, and delayed stomach-to-intestinal digestion (Gastroparesis). Additionally, a 17% higher risk was associated with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) without diarrhea.
Those who later developed Parkinson’s disease were more likely to have experienced gastrointestinal symptoms like functional dyspepsia, irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea, and diarrhea with fecal incontinence. These symptoms also appear in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, aneurysms, and strokes.
Interestingly, the study did not find an increased risk of Parkinson’s disease associated with inflammatory bowel disease.
These results underscore the importance of raising awareness about digestive issues among individuals at a higher risk of developing Parkinson’s disease. Experts are also recommending further research into the connections between gastrointestinal problems and conditions like dementia, stroke, and brain aneurysms.
According to Parkinson’s UK, it is estimated that approximately 172,000 people in the UK will be living with Parkinson’s by 2030. The World Health Organization reports 8.5 million cases of the disease worldwide.
In response to these findings, Parkinson’s UK’s Associate Director of Research, Clare Bale, stated that this study adds to the growing evidence that digestive problems may serve as early indicators of Parkinson’s. A deeper understanding of the role of the digestive system in the onset of Parkinson’s could lead to earlier diagnosis, more effective symptom management, and potentially strategies to delay or reverse the progression of the disease.
When assessing individuals at risk for Parkinson’s disease, even before the onset of neurological symptoms, Kim Barrett, Vice Dean for Research at the University of California, Davis, recommended paying close attention to specific gut disorders. However, it’s important to note that the current findings are correlational, leaving open the possibility of a third risk factor connecting gastrointestinal issues and Parkinson’s disease.